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Please also note that this article is based off version 1.3.1 of Slime Rancher.
There are several resources that can be collected, discovered, raised, and/or grown in Slime Rancher. Each type of resource has different defining characteristics. Fruit and veggies can rot and turn a darker color, disappearing when the player attempts to suck them into the Vacpack. All known variations of chickens evolve into different forms over time, showing age and changing in use/value. Materials are inedible for slimes, but can be used in Slime Science (accessible with the ranch expansion The Lab). Water is also considered a resource, but unlike other resources, it can be contained in its own designated vac tank purchased from the Vacpack Upgrades terminal on The Ranch.
There are three types of slime food: veggies, fruits, and meat. Chickadoos will evolve into meat, but are not edible for slimes in their current state and hence are not slime food. However, as they are listed alongside their respective evolutions (which are considered slime food), they are included in this category.
Chickadoos (will evolve into varying Meats)
No description other than "Food" is given in the Slimepedia.
Slime Science Materials
The following items are obtainable after unlocking the ranch expansion The Lab.